However, Member States shall not exclude from the scope of this Directive contracts of employment or employment relationships solely because:(a) of the number of working hours performed or to be performed,(b) they are employment relationships governed by a fixed-duration contract of employment within the meaning of Article 1(1) of Council Directive 91/383/EEC of 25 June 1991 supplementing the measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health at work of workers with a fixed-duration employment relationship or a tempory employment relationship(6), or(c) they are temporary employment relationships within the meaning of Article 1(2) of Directive 91/383/EEC, and the undertaking, business or part of the undertaking or business transferred is, or is part of, the temporary employment business which is the employer.
CHAPTER IISafeguarding of employees' rights Article 31.
98 - 103Special edition in Bulgarian: Chapter 05 Volume 006 P.
98 - 103Special edition in Maltese: Chapter 05 Volume 004 P.
98 - 103Special edition in Polish: Chapter 05 Volume 004 P.
Such clarification has not altered the scope of Directive 77/187/EEC as interpreted by the Court of Justice.(9) The Social Charter recognises the importance of the fight against all forms of discrimination, especially based on sex, colour, race, opinion and creed.(10) This Directive should be without prejudice to the time limits set out in Annex I Part B within which the Member States are to comply with Directive 77/187/EEC, and the act amending it, HAS ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE: CHAPTER IScope and definitions Article 11.
(a) This Directive shall apply to any transfer of an undertaking, business, or part of an undertaking or business to another employer as a result of a legal transfer or merger.(b) Subject to subparagraph (a) and the following provisions of this Article, there is a transfer within the meaning of this Directive where there is a transfer of an economic entity which retains its identity, meaning an organised grouping of resources which has the objective of pursuing an economic activity, whether or not that activity is central or ancillary.(c) This Directive shall apply to public and private undertakings engaged in economic activities whether or not they are operating for gain.
In the interests of clarity and rationality, it should therefore be codified.(2) Economic trends are bringing in their wake, at both national and Community level, changes in the structure of undertakings, through transfers of undertakings, businesses or parts of undertakings or businesses to other employers as a result of legal transfers or mergers.(3) It is necessary to provide for the protection of employees in the event of a change of employer, in particular, to ensure that their rights are safeguarded.(4) Differences still remain in the Member States as regards the extent of the protection of employees in this respect and these differences should be reduced.(5) The Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers adopted on 9 December 1989 ("Social Charter") states, in points 7, 17 and 18 in particular that: "The completion of the internal market must lead to an improvement in the living and working conditions of workers in the European Community.